Евросредиземноморское товарищество против токсикомании общероссийское движение «трезвая россия» международная славянская академия общероссийское объединение «оптималист»

НазваниеЕвросредиземноморское товарищество против токсикомании общероссийское движение «трезвая россия» международная славянская академия общероссийское объединение «оптималист»
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The USA history of alcoholization and temperance is divided into several periods. The first period from 1650 to 1750 was the first hundred years when the initial rudiments of abstinence and temperance movement appeared. But such movement was still unorganized and had a local character. The second period from 1750 to 1825 was conditionally called the inducement to moderation. The first public temperance organizations were established within that period which contested against hard liquors but as for bear and wine their actions were quite insignificant in respect thereof. The third period from 1825 to 1870 was characterized by transition from abstinence to real temperance. At that time the most active and numerous temperance organizations were established in the USA. The Prohibition Party was founded. The fourth period from 1870 to 1913 was conditionally called the movement to the American national conscience. During that period the women’s crusade for temperance against drunkenness was started. In 1902 the temperance campaign penetrated into all educational institutions of the USA especially into schools and colleges. Each state introduced the obligatory temperance instruction. The fifth period from 1913 to 1933 was called the National Prohibition. At that time an active preparation was carried out in the USA to the implementation of the Prohibition Act and it was enacted in the USA. The sixth period from 1933 to the present is called «the alcoholic flood». At that time the Prohibition Act was repealed in most states and America plunged again into crazy reveling.

The earliest protest movements aimed against alcohol products and their distributors in America started at the end of the 18th century. The fact was that colonies had at that time social problems associated with alcohol, namely, the number of murders, violence and robberies in drunken state sharply increased in the years following the American Revolution. The first protest against and criticism of drunkenness was declared by Dr. Benjamin Rush (January 4, 1746 [December 24, 1745] –April 19, 1813), who signed the Declaration of Independence on behalf of Pennsylvania. In particular, he clamoured against a daily portion of whiski given to soldiers in the Congress troops. Besides, the Americans of those time daily drunk traditionally up to several cups of whisky, from morning till night, instead of coffee and tea, as was customary in Europe (thereby followers of the American self-identity and independence also distanced themselves from the Old World but it took such tremendous scale that public representatives and politicians had to pay their attention thereat). The fact was that coffee and tea were colonial products brought to colonies by the mother country and whisky was wade of corn just at site. That meant that a new country needed to have some national product and by some strange chance whisky was chosen. Under influence of Benjamin Rush about 200 farmers in Connecticut formed a temperance association in 1789. Similar associations were formed in Virginia in 1800 and in New York in 1808. Within the next decade, other temperance organizations were formed in eight states.

More purposeful and uncompromising protest movement was started by Presbyterians in Connecticut in 1825. In 1840 Portland (the state of Maine) became the first city that adopted the Prohibition Act. Eleven years later the mayor of Portland persuaded the Legislative Assembly to regard the sales of alcohol illegal all over the territory of the state of Maine. It was followed by other states, which began to introduce restrictions for the use and sales of alcoholic beverages. Within the period from 1846 to 1855 the Prohibition was implemented in 13 states but later on it was repealed and declared as anti-constitutional.

At first public demands were just limited by the reduction of the number of places where alcohol was served in the country but by 1840 they reached ultimatum declarations for complete prohibition of alcohol on the USA territory. In 1851 twelve states adopted by mutual agreement their local anti-alcohol legislations. In 1826 the American Temperance Society and in 1836 the American Temperance Union were founded. In 1851 the International Organization of Good Templars (IOGT) was established, which became further the largest World Organization of Tamplers. After the Civil War in 1869 the Prohibition Party or the Prohibition Act Party. In 1873 the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was established and in 1893 the Anti-Saloon League of America (ASLA) was founded. In 1893 there was also organized the policy-oriented Anti-bear League. The Prohibition Party was at that time one of the leading parties of the United States. It was an important force in the American policy of the late 19th century and in the first years of the twentieth century. The first National Committee of the Prohibition Party was headed by the Chairman of the Party John Rassel from the state of Michigan. Since 1872 the Prohibition Party, in other words the Party of alcohol products ban, was present at all the President elections in the USA, though it was а little success for a long time by obtaining not more than 2 % votes. Nevertheless, while suffering a setback on the all-national level, the Prohibition Party managed to become a real force in a number of single states. The common point of view of the Americans was expressed by Weiner Wesler, the President of one of the public organizations: «Alcohol must disappear in our country as the kaiserism in the world. Alcohol destructs patriotic feelings, because bear is ranked higher than the motherland». By the beginning of the 20th century the efforts of Mary Hunt together with Elizabeth Gelok and other teachers of temperance appeared to be quite successful. Almost each state, District of Columbia and all pupils of schools and students of colleges got anti-alcohol education. The mayor of Argonia (Kansas) was elected in 1887 Susanna M. Salter, the first woman-mayor in the United States of America. Johnston Catts Sidney was elected in 1916 as the Governor of the state of Florida from the Prohibition Party. Many congressmen were nominated in different years to the USA Congress from the Prohibition Party.

At the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century the Prohibition Party obtained a quarter of million votes. Later on these numbers sharply dropped. It may be connected in particular with the fact that the mightyl Anti-Saloon League, the International Organization of Good Templars and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union decided to remain as non-partisan.

Throughout all the history of the United States of America most of all the USA presidents (18) belonged to the Republican Party. Representatives of the Democratic Party won at the president elections 15 times. Each of those two parties herewith controlled the president post for 84 years in total. But every year since 1872 the old and formerly mighty Prohibition Party has been participating in the elections. Thus, it is the most long-existing American political party after the republicans and democrats.

Pastor Gena Amondson who nominated himself for the second time as a candidate for the USA president post from the Prohibition Party was officially enrolled in 2008 to voting ballots in the following five states - Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee. Amondson’s pre-elective platform was laconic to the utmost: to return the total ban in the USA on the manufacture and sales of all alcohol products. That was the same prohibition as existed in the country from 1920 to 1933. "Why the years of the Prohibition were the greatest years for America? It was so because our prisons and mental hospitals were empty and the number of patients suffering from hepatic cirrhosis twice decreased from 15% to 7%. Vote for tradition, vote for prohibition, I need your vote!" – so pastor Amondson called up in his pre-election advertising video-clip.

The Prohibition Party continues to nominate its candidates for the USA presidents each four years but its results of voting unfortunately decrease. Last time the Party representative got over 100.000 votes for the President post in 1948 and in 1976 the Party got for the last time over 10.000 votes for the President post. In 2003 the Party was divided into two fractions. The fraction of Earl Dodge nominated in February 2004 its candidate for the President post in the state of Colorado and in Louisiana Gena Amondson was nominated thereto. As a result Earl Dodge polled 140 votes and Gena Amondson polled 1944 votes. After the death of Earl Dodge in November 2007 the fraction began to vote for Gena Amondson. At the same time they nominated Howard Lidick from their fraction for the USA Vice-President post. In 2008 the candidate for the President post from the Prohibition Party polled only 643 votes.

The votes in the elections of candidates for the USA President post from the Prohibition Party were as follows (as per years):

• 1872 James Black 5607

• 1876 Green Smith Clay 9737

• 1880 Neal Dow 10305

• 1884 John P. St. John 150369

• 1888 Clinton B. Fisk 249506

• 1892 John Bidwell 264133

• 1896 Joshua Levering 132007

• 1900 John G. Wooley 298914

• 1904 Silas C. Swallow 258536

• 1908 Eugene W. Chafin 253840

• 1912 Eugene W. Chafin 206275

• 1916 J. Frank Hanly 22506

• 1920 Aaron S. Watkins 189408

• 1924 Herman P. Faris 57520

• 1928 William F. Varney 20106

• 1932 D. Leigh Colvin 37847

• 1940 Roger Babson 57812

• 1944 Claude A. Watson 74758

• 1948 Claude A. Watson 103900

• 1952 Stuart Hamblen72949

• 1956 Enoch А. Holtwick 41937

• 1960 Rutherford S. Decker 46203

• 1964 E. Harold Munn 32267

• 1968 E. Harold Munn 15123

• 1972 E. Harold Munn 13444

• 1976 Ben Bubar 15961

• 1980 Ben Bubar 7237

• 1984 Earl F. Dodge 4204

• 1988 Earl F. Dodge 8004

• 1992 Earl F. Dodgе 935

• 1996 Earl F. Dodge 1294

• 2000 Earl F. Dodge 208

• 2004 Gene Amondson 1896

• 2008 Gene Amondson 643

• 2012 Lowell Jackson "Jack" Fellure

At its Convention held on June 20-22, 2011 in Cullman, Alabama, the Prohibition Party nominated Lowell Jackson "Jack" Fellure as the candidate for the USA President.

There have been several official and unofficial periodicals associated with the Prohibition Party. There was "The Voice" in New York, "The New Voice" also in New York, "The Lever" in Chicago, "The Vindicator" in Pennsylvania, a "National Prohibitionist" in Chicago and Winona Lake, and "The National Statesman" which moved from place to place. “The National Statesman” was separated from The National Prohibition Committee in 2003 but was further issued as the personal journal of Earl F. Dodge till his death in 2007.

Today the Prohibition Party stands up in the sphere of morality for the total and absolute Prohibition, opposes the drug legalization, abortions, gambling, homosexual relations, pornography, advertising of any alcohol and tobacco products, advocates the introduction of a new Bible-based religious discipline. In the field of foreign policy the Prohibition Party stands up for the withdrawal of the USA troops from Germany and Japan, for the extermination of those who makes drugs in Afghanistan. In domestic policy the Party members fight for the general accessibility of public health servicing and the repeal of the so-called juvenile justice. The Party opposes the mass inflow of foreigners to the USA territory and supports the matter of strengthening of the southern frontier with Mexico and the outer space exploration.

In addition, some other different organizations functioned on the USA territory which called themselves as «progressionists». The program of the said associations was as follows: the alcohol prohibition, the realization of Christian Protestant valuables and principles in the country policy, the protection of family values, i.e. to combine the spiritual and material progress in one nation. The Prohibition was opposed by Episcopal Churches, German Lutherans and Catholics. Among Protestant confessions the Prohibition was especially supported by Methodists, northern Baptists, southern Baptists, Presbyterians, the Christ’s pupils, Congregationalists, Quakers and Scandinavian Lutherans. All the said organizations chose as their main activities the lobbying of anti-alcohol laws. The first bans related to the alcohol sales were adopted in the USA in the middle of the 18th century. In 1913 the ASLA for the first time suggested to introduce the national legislation (thus, repeating the Presbyterians’ demands, which had been left unsatisfied). And nine states immediately prohibited the traffic of alcohol products on their territories. After the introduction of the Amendment in 1914 the alcohol production and sales were seriously restricted on the USA territory. Since September 8, 1917 the alcohol manufacture in the USA was practically banned. Although it was considered as a temporary measure of war time but the Prohibition attainments (the considerable reduction of the death rate, the decrease of emergencies and catastrophes and the increase in labour productivity) promoted the growth of the popularity for adherents of the total alcohol prohibition. Within a number of years the Congress and the President discussed it and conflicted because of it. But in 1919 it was adopted. Unfortunately, there were some loopholes for alcohol, thus, it was allowed to make home grape wine and fruit cider (but not bear). From 1883 to 1887 the bailiff systems was formed in Florida aimed at the alcohol distribution restriction. In 1885 the movement occurred in Florida, which was further called «dry» and gave the slang denomination “Dry Act” for the official term «the Prohibition legislation». As a result by 1907 in Florida there was established the local legislation of the state, which banned the alcohol constituent distribution and production. It was the famous 19th Article of the Constitution of Florida. It should be noted that its creation had been inspired by public.

By the beginning of 1910 the Anti-Saloon League turned to one of mass social movements of the USA. The fact was that problems, which John Barleycorn was accused of, just worsened: the living standard was permanently reduced because of the Dollar instability and the criminality grew because of the continuous inflow of emigrants and making drunkards from people. The alcohol industry consumed so much grain raw stock that at the beginning of World War I the bread supply shortage occurred in the country. In 1905 the Prohibition Act was effective in Kansas, Maine, Nebraska and North Dakota. In August 1907 Georgia, South Caroline and Alabama imposed simultaneousl the absolute ban on alcohol. By 1908 the local restraining legislation began to be formed in other states, preferably in the southern ones. By 1912 the Prohibition covered nine states already and by 1916 — 26 states. After the USA entering into World War I the government tried to save the stock of grain and the Prohibition adherents achieved the national ban on the alcohol production. By 1913 the legal proceedings against owners of illegal bars and saloons were carried out in Florida. By 1918 the anti-alcohol movement in the USA became so mighty that in 1919 the 18th amendment to the Constitution was adopted. It should be noted that the formation of such laws was the result of the long and obstinate fight of public figures of America throughout all the second half of the 19th century for the restriction of activities in the alcohol distribution.

The prohibition campaign was closely interconnected with anti-German position started in the USA with the beginning of World War I. German books were withdrawn from libraries and the teaching of the German language was stopped in the country. The leader of the Anti-Saloon League Wayne Wheeler convinced American legislators that the German-American brewery works cooperated with the German Government, the USA military enemy. Wheeler also declared that valuable raw materials were wasted in the alcohol manufacture, which would be rather used for military purposes. As a result the embargo was imposed in the USA for selling grain and alcohol manufacturing works were closed.

The membership of the USA temperance organizations considerably coincided. The same members were simultaneously in several organizations. Among the outstanding figures of the USA temperance movement there may be noted bishop James Cannon Junior (November 13, 1864 to September 6, 1944), James Black (September 23, 1823 to December 16, 1893), Ernest Cherrington (1877 to 1950), Neal S. Dow (March 20, 1804 to October 2, 1897), Mary Hunt (1830 to 1906), William E. Johnson (known as Johnson -"the Prohibition") (March 25, 1862 to February 2, 1945), Carrie Amelia Moore Nation (November 25, 1846 to June 9, 1911), Howard Hyde Russel (1855-1946), John St. John (February 25, 1833 to August 31, 1916), William Ashley Billie Sunday (November 19, 1862 to November 6, 1935), Father Matthew (1790 to 1856), Andrew John Valstead (October 31, 1860 to January 20, 1947), Wayne Bidwell Wheeler (November 10, 1869 to September 5, 1927) and many others.

At that time many abstinence and temperance organizations of the USA united ideologically in single outburst.

Thus, the Anti-Saloon League established the World Temperance League, which purpose was to impose ban on alcohol not only in the United States but all over the world. The said new organization established in 1919 collaborated with temperance groups in over 50 world countries. It rendered assistance in training speakers and in the preparation of instruction materials for the International temperance movement development. The World League activity against alcoholism was aimed not only at the alcoholism prevention but also at the total termination of the alcohol consumption.

In 1913 The National Temperance Council was established in the USA in 1913 to coordinate the activities of numerous temperance organizations. It goal was to ratify an amendment to the USA Constitution, which banned the production, distribution and sale of alcohol products all over the country. One of such organizations was the Order of Templars of Honor and Temperance formed in the USA in 1845. Another organization of the brotherhood for temperance became the movement named The Sons of Temperance. It started quickly spreading during 1840s all over the territory of the United States and in some parts of Canada. In 1850 over 5000 active individuals participated in the movement. After Mary Hunt’s death in 1906 a Department of Scientific Temperance Instruction was formed under the women’s temperance movement, which tried to direct the temperance movement to the scientific course. And earlier in 1865 a Publishing House was founded under the National Temperance Society, which published over 2000 names of books, brochures, manuals, slogans and leaflets. In 1893 the USA scientists established the Committee of Fifty to study problems related to the use and consumption of alcohol products. The said Committee tried to transfer the temperance movement from military rails to the scientific road.

Clarence True Wilson headed for many years the Methodist Episcopal Church, which was one of the USA leading churches standing up for the Prohibition in the country. Under the Methodists’ initiative an Inter-confessional Council was formed to put in force the 18th amendment to the USA Constitution. In the sixties the Council was reorganized to the General Council of Churches and Society for Alcohol Problem Prevention. To support temperance among children and teenagers, Howard Hyde Russel formed in 1903 Lincoln Lee Legion under the Anti-Saloon Legue. That Legion was named so in honour of Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 to April 15, 1865), an active adherent of temperance in the USA. In 1912 the Legion name was added the prefix Lee, in honour of Robert Lee (January 19, 1807 to October 12, 1870), General of the army of the Confederative States of America (August 31, 1861), the commander of the Army of North Virginia and the Commander-in Chief of the Confederation Army, an active adherent of temperance. By 1925 over 5 million of boys signed pledges to abstain from alcohol.

The tremendous work for the popularization of temperance in the USA was carried out by the Capuchin priest Theobald Mathew. He started his activity in the USA in 849 where he visited with his speeches and sermons 25 states, over 300 cities and settlements and as a result about 500 thousand people took a pledge of total abstinence. On April 26 in St-Louis, Missouri, the Temperance Order of the Knights of Father Mathew was founded. Later on Order of "Ladies' Auxiliaries of the Knights of Father Mathew" was formed under the said Order. In 1871 in Baltimore, Maryland, 177 catholic temperance societies consisting of over 26 thousand of members established the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America.

From September 30, 1914 to June 6, 1915 The Flying Temperance Squadrons consisting of skilled speakers, known temperance agitators, functioned actively in the USA. They were organized by Jh. Frank Hanly, the former Governor of Indiana, confirmed abstainer.
In unison to prohibitionists’ organizations the American Anti-Cigarette League acted. It was a public anti-tobacco organization of the USA. The said League was founded in 1890 by Lucie Gaston, a teacher, a writer, a lecturer and a member of the Christian Women’s Temperance Union. Gaston affirmed that smoking was a step to the alcohol and other drugs consumption. Within the period between 1890 and 1930 15 states of the USA adopted laws prohibiting the sale, manufacture, storage and use of cigarettes and in other 22 states such laws were pending. Even in North Caroline manufacturing tobacco laws for banning cigarettes were implemented in years 1897, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1911, 1913 and 1917. Under the system pressure of the tobacco mafia all states, in the long run, repealed in the middle of the 20th century their bans on using cigarettes in public areas. Kansas was the last state, which terminated the ban on tobacco in 1927. But the efforts of the American Anti-Cigarette League were not in vain and today in the USA many activists use in practice the rich experience of the League on a new level to clear America from tobacco smoke.
In the first years of the Prohibition existence in America there consecutively proved itself the American College Health Association (ACHA), a non-governmental anti-drug and anti-alcohol organization established in 1920. The ACHA was the main defender and organizer of health leadership in the USA colleges and universities. Traditions of that Organization were not condemned to oblivion. Vice-versa, they were strengthened in the 20th century. Today the members of the Association are over 900 colleges and universities of the USA. The Association cooperates with over 3000 individual health care professionals.

The American Baptist Association, one of the USA large Baptist temperance churches acted consecutively for the Prohibition implementation in the USA. After the creation of the North Baptist Convention in 1845 the movement titled The Old Landmarks appeared among the adherents of Baptism in the south states of the USA. Its leaders (Jh. R. Graves, Jh. M. Pendlton and others) stated that they strived for the restoration of apostolic purity of Baptist churches by preserving old landmarks of the early Christianity. Landmarkists (from English «landmark») affirmed that early Christians were Baptists as they supposedly christened only when being adults by means of emerging and they united in local autonomous communities. Thus, they tried to prove the succession of contemporary Baptists with the early Christianity considering ancient and medieval temperance Christian sects of Montanists, Novatians, Donatists, Paulicians, Valdenses and Anabaptists as the links of that succession chain. The Head office of the American Baptist Association is currently in Texarkana, Texas. The number of the Association adherents (including children) is 900 thousand persons. These are mainly American Europeans.

In 1859 the American Dental Association was established. It was a non-governmental organization of the USA affecting the prevention of drug addiction. The Association originator was William Henry Atkinson, a famous dentist and abstainer. The Association members have opposed and oppose the smoking, the consumption of alcohol and other drugs addiction as these items affect teeth quite negatively. The Dental Association took an active part in the Prohibition implementation in the USA.

In 1847 Nathan Smith Davis founded the American Medical Association, a non-governmental, anti-alcohol organization for studying insobriety and drugs. In 1876 the Association started issuing its Journal of Alcoholism. The following words were written in its cover page: "This is the first and the only journal dedicated to alcohol and narcotic neuroses". That periodical has existed for about 40 years. About 100 articles were published therein, which contained the idea proving that insobriety was disease in the form of neurosis or even psychosis and that the alcohol consumption was not only the cause of illness but a symptom of disease process, by itself. The activity of the Association and Journal was sharply criticized by different religious editions. Nottwithstanding, the Association took an active part in the Prohibition implementation in North America.

The USA sobering processes involved the American Psychiatric Association, the USA oldest national medical society. It was founded in 1844. Throughout the first 50 years the Association was a small organization of doctors holding the posts of mental hospital directors. In 1892 it was renamed to the American Medico-Psychological Association and its current name was approved in 1921. The number of its members increased from 900 in 1918 to over 26 thousand in 1981. It is 70% of about 31 thousand psychiatrists available in the USA. Over 400 members represent other countries.

The American Baptist Churches of the USA are the unification of Baptist temperance churches, associations and conventions functioning in different states of the country, which participated directly in the establishing of sober society in the North America. At first the Organization was named the North Baptist Convention. In 1950 it was renamed to the American Baptist Convention and in 1973 it was given its present name. It was formed in 1907 as a result of the unification of Baptist associations and societies founded in the 18th and 19th centuries.

In 1826 the American Temperance Union was established. Soon thereafter the Second National Temperance Union was united with First one in 1833 in the form of the American Temperance Union. The official periodical of the Union was The Journal of the American Temperance Union. The Union and its publications were influential in the development of the USA temperance movement. It was especially evident during the Prohibition implementation in the USA.

Somewhere earlier in 1813 the American Temperance Society was founded in Boston. By 1829 it included about 100 thousand members and a thousand divisions. The Society functioned actively in the course of the preparation and implementation of the Prohibition Act in the USA. By 1938 the Organization incorporated 8 thousand chapters with one-and-a-half million members. As a result 4 thousand distilleries were shut down and 8 thousand merchants broke away from alcohol trading. The Society was founded under the influence of anti-alcohol activity of Dr. Edvars. It was resolved at the general meeting to draw up the abstinence society statute, which was approved on February 13 of the same year. The Society integrates currently 400 thousand members and 3 thousand local groups in 50 states.

In 1913 the American Cancer Society appeared. It is a specialized organization in the USA, which has been and is currently engaged in cancer research and trains specialists for medicine and education. It also participated actively in the Prohibition implementation in the country. The Society was given its current name in 1945. Its membership today includes over two million persons. The Society consists of the National Office, 57 chapters and over 3400 specialists. The National Society is responsible for anti-cancer planning; the elaboration and implementation of research programs, medical grants. It carries out the social and professional education on the national level. Its chapters are located in states and bear the responsibility for the local education and anti-cancer programs. The anti-tobacco education is carried out from a nursery to a secondary school. The vocational education is given to health care professionals. The particular attention is paid to cancer prevention, its early detection and the discussion of that problem at conferences and symposia. There are issued different materials, including video recording, manuals and two national journals. Clinical rewards have been introduced. The research activity is encouraged; children programs are studied including information bulletin and data on dubious methods of cancer treatment. The Society opposes actively tobacco smoking and use of other toxicants. The Society has currently a new burning subject and uses skilfully in its exploitation of the wave of public protests in defense of uncontaminated air in rooms to protect passive smokers. (The maintaining of fresh air outside the room has been paid by today so little attention to, as to fighting cancerogenic radon, a killer, which settles in our dwellings). New fellow-fighters join daily this current crusade. The Society also provides different services including recovery and rehabilitation programs. Its National Office is in Atlanta, Georgia.

This day month after the USA entry into the war the Congress approved the ban on the sale of alcoholic drinks to militarymen. In 1917 the USA Congress accepted and presented the draft Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution on the Prohibition establishment to states for ratification. In September 1917 the manufacture of whisky was ceased and in May 1919 the manufacture of bear suffered the same fate. In October 1919 the Volstead Act was adopted, which regulated the compulsory implementation of the 18th Amendment, (contrary to President Woodrow Wilson’s veto). On October 27 Wilson vetoed that bill. On the same day, two hours later after the Congrees had got to know on the President’s resolution, the House of Representatives adopted that act for the second time by the majority of two thirds of votes (as it was stipulated by the Law in case of the President’s veto of one ore another act). The next date the Senate re-voted similarly. The fair Prohibition law became effective inspite of President Wilson’s will. Statistics showed that the establishment of such Act resulted in positive changes in the country, namely, the mortality and criminality reduced, the labour productivity increased. The tremendous significance of the Prohibition is also proved by the fact that more than one generation of Americans have been educated under its influence. It should be herewith noted that all processes occurring in the American society affected radically the work of the state machinery itself. As is known, President Wilson originated from the South and 4 members of his Cabinet were southerners too, where the so-called «dry» movement for abstinence was widely spread. But democratic circles (and they constituted the majority in the Senate) were against anti-alcohol projects, as, in their opinion, the food industry suffered losses in Dollars because of the closure of the alcohol manufacure and stoppage of the alcohol trade and with the ban in 1919 it just collapsed. Thus, since July 1, 1919 the sale of alcohol products was entirely banned on the USA territory and on January 16, 1920 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution became effective.

As we have already noted, the Prohibition enactment in the USA resulted in positive changes. G. Goslar wrote in his book titled Modern America (1925) the following: «Within nearly three years of its validity the recovery of society took place. The number of arrests decreased by 3.5 times, including those for vagrancy, though the conditions of exploitation and unemployment remained the same”.

9 months later 1100 prison cells appeared to be vacant in Philadelphia and the number of prisoners reduced from 2000 to 474, that was by 4.2 times. On April 1, 1920 600 prisoners left from 2500 ones in the Chicago prison. French political economist Anri Bodriljar was right by saying that: «Alcohol is the supplier of people for prisons». The criominality reduced in the USA by 70%.

Released beds in mental hospitals of Buffallo were given to tuberculous patients, which number had increased in the years of alcohoo trading.

The consumption of milk by the population increased. The welfare of people improved. Family bonds strenghened. Savings increased. The morality and hygiene improved. The number of injuries and accidents decreased and losses resulting therefrom reduced by USD 250 million. People did not die from acute alcohol intoxication any more. The total death rate decreased. Working families had prosperity, tranquility and happiness instead of former sad gloom.

Household savings were assigned to build dwellings. Purchases become more reasonable. The number of fires sharply decreased.

The authorities of the state of Kansas repaid their indebtedness in the amount of USD 2 million. And returned bills were burnt off in public. The Governor of the state of Kansas telegraphed to New Zealand: «All governmental officials, labour unions, medical associations and 95% of the rest population vote in favour of temperance law».

Numerous closed breweries and distilleries were quickly, effectively and to a good purpose re-equipped for the manufacture of needful products and goods: syrups, canned fruit and vegetables, soap, sweets, butter, clothes, gloves, books and even for opening hotels.

1092 breweries and 236 distilleries were shut down. 177790 public houses where alcohol was served were closed. With the enactment of the Prohibition residents of the United States drunk less. American historian William Joseph Ropabo calculated that from 1920 to 1933 the annual alcohol consumption per capita was at the average of 2.3 litre (in equivalent of pure alcohol), that is twice less than before the Prohibition enactment.

Such evident benefits of abstinent life in the USA should draw the attention of Europe in interests of domestic policy, social hygiene, eugenics, national economy and criminalistics.

The Temperance Bill grew up from the acknowledgement of its necessity to prevent the barbarization and degeneration of the people”. A fine for the violation of that Act came to USD one thousuand and those who were unable to pay were impsisoned for half-year».

As we see, the Prohibition in the USA gave splendid results. But the national and international alcohol promoting reaction made all its efforts to flood the country with illegal spirit and hooch, namely, alcohol beverages were brought by flottillas and echelons. It proved that alcohol-crime fighting was weakly conducted.

During the Prohibition validity there were active opponents thereof. Thus, that Act was not ratified in Connecticut, Rhode Island, Illinoys and Wiskonsin were the manufacture and contraband export of alcohol to other states were set up.

Gang groups (bootleggers) made profits out of contraband and surreptitious untaxed sale of alcohol. The number of Jews in the USA began to increase quickly having reached 4 million persons. Notwithstanding the opinion of both anti-Semites and Zionists the Jews at that time did not have strong positions in the business world of America. In the nineties the most Jews lived in their ghettos like Brooklin of New York and were mainly engaged in small retail trade, keeping underground lotteries and especially speakeasies. There is no point to surprise that the most Jewish organizations regarded the Prohibition as an anti-Semitic action. When it was required to put that law in force, a sense of duty before public and moral principles gave place to striving for personal enrichment and to fight it was much more difficult! Thus, for example, the right to sell alcohol was granted to druggists for the so-cald medical purposes. It was quite easy to counterfeit or to steal prescriptions. Moreover many doctors gave them just for nothing».

One more reliable source of alcohol for bootleggers was industry. At the beginning of the 20th century alcohol was used in the production far actively than ever. The automotive industry using antifreeze became one of the main suppliers of the black market. Directors and suppliers of cosmetic companies, leather working factories, paint and synthetic material works helped to satify the demand in pure alcohol. The American authorities attempted from time to time to hinder the illegal cooperation of industrials and bootleggers by obliging, for example, to use only methyl alcohol in the production. But when visitors of underground bars began to lose their vision and even to die it was resolved to give up the experiment.

The country boundaries extending for 18 700 miles lso gave a wide choice of ways for smuggling and there was no frontier with Mexico as such. As before the manufacture of alcohol-free bear was not prohibited and it was quirte easy to make it alcoholic.

If the American people in 1920 elected to the Government some dedicated and honest politicians, who were able to create an otmoshere of high morality, everyting might went by another way. However, having yilded to reactionary minds electors preferred Warren Harding with his team known in the history as the Ohio band and new authorities in their strivings for the after-war life “normalization” encouraged at their utmost the greed and grubbiness.

One might hardly expect the observance of the Prohibition by citizens as nearly everyone knew in the country that President Harding had his own bootlegger Elias Mortimer and that alcohol beverages were served in the White House as freely as in the famous Green House in Key Street where the Ohio band clinched its deals related to the speculation of whiski, petroleum products, verdicts of not guilty etc. A well-informed inhabitant was interesed to know what and how much their President drunk and gave a damn about the Prohibition.

In reply to temperance strivings of the peoples the international reaction began to establish its own organizations to suppress such strivings. For example, in 1921 the International League against Prohibition was founded in Lausanne. It included representatives of many countries. It was supported by large capitalists. Milliarders assigned large amounts for its maintenance. That reactionist organization had a number of black anti-popular victories: in 1922 it made a considerable contribution to the repeal of the prohibition in Sweden. It broke the discussion of the alcohol problem in the League of Nations, made considerable efforts for undermining the Prohibition in the USA There were existed both national and internation pro-alcohol organizations, which enjoyed the support of big business magnates. So, in 1921 in Switzerland there was established «the Central Secretariate, which was intended for struggle with surplus absinence». This is a wird-by-word description of the organization, which expressed clearly its orientation. The following was written in the Secretariate program: «to impede the exaggerated and erroneous influence of abstinence fanatics awaking interest to alcohol in public».

The national and internation reaction, criminal communities flooded the country with illegal and smuggled alcohol products. It proved that alcohol-crime fighting was weakly conducted, that the corruption was rife and involved many top-ranking officials. The Republican Party stood up at that time for the prohibition system and canvassed thereby quite a great number of votes at elections. The opposition Democratic Party demanded the repeal of the Prohibition. It promised to voters to remove the ban on the manufacture and sale of alcohol in case of its victory at elections. At the same time a tremendous reactionary work was carried out. Apologists of wine drinking carried out their wide and fine publicity campaigns tuning the public opinion to the removal of the ban. In the long run the Prohibition became again the burning point of disputes on moral. Several million persons were engaged in moonshine making and alcohol smuggling. Such specific terms appeared as «bootlegger» (alcohol smuggler), «moonshiner» (illicit distiller of alcoholic liquor), «speakeasy» (a worker of a place where alcohol is illegally served). Even President Warren Harding (1921-1923), as we know, was the Prohibition breaker, who liked to have a drink with his ministers. Mafia grew fairly rich through violations of the Prohibition. The only Meyer Lansky brought 49 million gallons of whisky into the country. The rest undertakings of the American “jazz epoch” experienced the similar fate. In 1926 during the President campaign the anti-alcohol Amendment became the main subject of the pre-election discussion. When President C. Coolidge left the White House the Prohibition celebrated in the USA its 10-year age. Grave crisis combusted in the country in 1929 -1933 loosened sharply the ruling party. In 1932 democrats won the election and in December 1933 they fulfilled their pre-election promise and repealed the Prohibition.

Thus, under the pressure of alcohol mafia in December 1933 the Twenty First Amendment to the USA Constitution was adopted, which repealed the national Prohibition. On March 22, 1933 President Franklin Roosevelt signed an act on the amendment to the Volstead Act known as the Cullen–Harrison Act, which legalized the manufacture and sale of some kinds of alcohol products. On December 5, 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the USA Constitution was repealed by the ratification of the Twenty First Amendment. The historical applications of the Prohibition stated the only, that: none of them was blown up from the inside, by people themselves. All repeals were either caused by pressure from other countries which a state declaring the Prohibition economically depended on, or by representatives of the wine industry or by mafia in their own country. The last manifested itself especially evidently in the USA.

Some restrictions remained at the level of single states. Oklahoma, Cansas and Mississippi remained sober till 1948. Mississippi was the last state to remove all restrains in 1966. Serious restrictions with respect to alcohol are currently available in the states of Maine and Yuta. Up to this day there are still many temperate districts and cities in America, which restrict or ban the sale and consumption of alcohol. Besides, alcohol is banned overwhelmingly in Indian reservations.

The USA Prohibition history is divided by researchers into four stages. At the first stage all available reserve of alcohol was "withdrawn" under various excuses (for example, "for medical purposes") and was distributed on sales markets. That stage passed when privately-owned reserves of alcohol exhausted. At the second stage people started moonshining and making other kinds of alky by primitive methods. At that time Italian mafioso appeared in the forefront, who owing to their integration and ability to act in consent, took under their control all moonshining, helped to gain required constituents and to sell products doing business on the big figure. However, whereabout by 1924 the need appeared in the supply of alcohol products by smuggling. But little separate organizations were unable to do it. To provide the roaring contrabant and extending business, large and mighty organizations were needed. It was marked as the third stage of the Prohibition, when large criminal groups with wide-scaled international relations came to the front.

But the future had the Great Depression in store for the Americans. After "the Black Tuesday" (on October 29, 1929) the Great Depression seized gradually all the country. Unemployment, bankruptcy and poverty were extened. In early 1933 the last banks were closed. Only bootleggers had money. So, just after the repeal of the Prohibition (in the same 1933) bootleggers had disposable capital on hands, which might serve as support in getting access to commanding posts in large production.

At the fourth stage with the repeal of the Prohibition many bootleggers apprehending a change in current situation began to shift quickly to other kinds of illegal business like gambling, prostitution and illegal drugs. Distilleries also remained and were not illegal already. They manufactured quite officially different alcohol products, which were sold already at usual prices. But it was already profitable because well-arranged production functioned excellent.

Having obtained the repeal of bans on alcohol, the moonshining reaction began to discredit that valuable and reasonable measure. It spread rumours on the invalidity of the Prohibition, оn the so-called gloomy consequences of its enactment. The USA experience is cited as the basic argument heretofor. False idle talks got into mass media. Apoogets of the moonshine consumption established a lot of popular and literary editions where the Prohibition was discredited. It was quite natural that it disinformed many people, including teachers, all kinds of propagandists, who taking falsehoof for truth drove and drive it up to now into the consciousness of the younger generation. According to data of the Gallup Institute of Public Opinion the Americans consume today alcohol in the following proportion: 20 cans of bear monthly (per capita), 7 portions (50 g per portion) of ardent spirits and 5 glasses (100 g of wine per a glass ) of wine. An average common resident of the West-Europe drink less bear (12 cans) but more intoxicant beverages (8 portions) and 16 glasses of wine. According to the same statistics about 40% of all crimes in the USA are commited by humans being under the influence of alcohol, so, the problem still exists up to now...

In the crisis time authorities try very often to drown the people’s clamour in wine. It was so in America in the time of Roosevelt and in Russia in the time of Eltsin. Nowadays when the wings of a new Great Depression have not yet declined entirely to the world, some appropriate measures are taken in a number of countries. Herewith, as alcohol is banned only in Moslim and Buddhistic countries, other means of human emotions control are put to the role of John Barleycorn. So, for the first time in the history of the World Health Organization under the UNO the matter of the possible legalization of marijuana was raised on the highest international level. The prestigeous Englsh Berkeley Foundation has prepared specially a report on the situation with the world consumption of that drug, which contains also the Comission’s recommendations on the matter of marijuana legalization. Simultaneously in different editions, both in tabloids and in quality newspapers, articles appear out of sudden stating that heroin is not so dangeorous, cocaina has just an effect of champaigne and that in Holland and in other countries, which have legalized the so-called «soft» drugs, drug abuse seems to be insignificant. Honorable Professor of Harvard School of Medicine, the author of the book Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine, Lester Grinspoon proves that marijuana is cheaper than other medicines against the same diseases and so, it may help to save money on workers insurance.

Long since the press describes incorrectly the causes of the Prohibition refusal. The guilt is imposed to workers who supposedly commited mass crimes, as «hanker after forbidden fruit», and built up hereby the situation worse than before. It is a bright example of absurdist logic of drinking programmists. The robustness and life oblige to suppose that the governmental enacment of a ban on anything reduces its propagation. By false description of consequences of the USA prohibition system allegedly causing the growth of the death rate, intoxication and criminality growth pro-alcogolic absurdists try to restrain the spread of the positive attitude of the population thereto. Assuming that American authorities appeared to be forceless in fight with violators of the Prohibition, then where do they take energy for conducting long and obstinate fight? Why did the Government not allow free trade thereof under the same causes under which the Prohibition was repealed?

К.Г.Башарин, профессор, академик (Якутск)

З.К.Башарина, профессор, академик (Якутск)
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