Английский язык для будущих экономистов






НазваниеАнглийский язык для будущих экономистов
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ВСЕРОССИЙСКИЙ ЗАОЧНЫЙ ФИНАНСОВО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

ДЛЯ БУДУЩИХ ЭКОНОМИСТОВ

Учебно-методическое пособие

Для студентов I курса, обучающихся

по направлениям 521600 «Менеджмент» (бакалавр),

521600 «Экономика» (бакалавр)

МОСКВА 2011

Учебно-методическое пособие составил:

специалист по УМР Галанов Н.В.
Учебно-методическое издание одобрено на заседании

Научно-методического совета ВЗФЭИ
Проректор, председатель НМС, профессор Д.М. Дайитбегов

Содержание

Введение………………………………………………………………………...…5
Unit 1. Organisational structure …………………………………………...………6

Part 1…………………………………………………………………………..6

Part 2…………………………………………………………………………..8

Part 3……………………………………………………………………...….10
Unit 2. Microeconomics ……………………………………………….…………11

Part 1……………………………………………………………………..…..11

Part 2………………………………………………………………………....13

Part 3………………………………………………………………………....15
Unit 3. Supply and demand ………………………………………………………16

Part 1………………………………………………………………………....16

Part 2……………………………………………………………………..…..19

Part 3………………………………………………………………………....21
Unit 4. Market failure ……………………………………………………….……22

Part 1……………………………………………………………………..…..22

Part 2………………………………………………………………………....24

Part 3……………………………………………………………………...….26
Unit 5. Budget…………………………………………………………………….27

Part 1………………………………………………………………….……..27

Part 2…………………………………………………………………….…..29

Part 3………………………………………………………………………...31
Unit 6. Monetary policy ……………………………………………………….…32

Part 1………………………………………………………………………...32

Part 2………………………………………………………………………...34

Part 3……………………………………………………………………..….36
Unit 7. Inflation………………………………………………………………...…37

Part 1………………………………………………………………….……..37

Part 2………………………………………………………………………...39

Part 3……………………………………………………………………..….71
Unit 8. Marketing and sales ………………………………………………………42

Part 1………………………………………………………………………....42

Part 2………………………………………………………………………....44

Part 3……………………………………………………………………...….47
Unit 9. Price…………………………………………………………………….…48

Part 1………………………………………………………………..………..48

Part 2………………………………………………………………………...50

Part 3………………………………………………………………………...53
Unit 10. Market………………………………………………………………...…54

Part 1………………………………………………………………….……..54

Part 2…………………………………………………………………….…..56

Part 3………………………………………………………………………...58

Полезные фразы для написания письма……………………………………….59

Словарь………………………………………………………………………..….64

Список литературы………………………………………………………..…….70
Введение
Пособие разработано на основе современных аутентичных материалов и является профессионально ориентированным. Особое внимание уделяется экономической лексике.

В пособии приводятся упражнения на развитие таких видов речевой деятельности как говорение, аудирование, чтение и письмо. В конце пособия приведены полезные фразы для написания письма, а также словарь экономических терминов. При выполнении заданий, следует использовать указанные компьютерные обучающие программы, приведенные в списке литературы.

После прочтения текста и его обсуждения требуется высказать собственное мнение по содержанию текста. В упражнениях использованы слова для активного усвоения.

Данное учебно-методическое пособие может быть использовано как при работе в аудитории, так и для дистанционного обучения и индивидуальной работы.

Пособие может быть использовано на занятиях по английскому языку на 1 курсе бакалавриата.

Unit 1

Part 1
Прочитайте и переведите текст.
1. Organisational structure
Every organisation made up of more than one person will need some form of organisational structure.

The way in which a company is organised can be illustrated for a packaging company. The company will be owned by shareholders that choose directors to look after their interests. The directors then appoint managers to run the business on a day-to-day basis. The Managing Director has the major responsibility for running of the company, including setting company targets and keeping an eye on all departments.

The Distribution Manager is responsible for controlling the movement of goods in and out of the warehouse, supervising drivers and overseeing the transport of goods to and from the firm.

The Production Manager is responsible for keeping a continuous supply of work flowing to all production staff and also for organising manpower to meet the customers' orders.

The Sales Manager is responsible for making contact with customers and obtaining orders from those contacts.

The Company Accountant controls all the financial dealings of the company and is responsible for producing management accounts and financial reports.
Other organisations will have different structures. For example most organisations will have a marketing department responsible for market research and marketing planning. A customer services department will look after customer requirements. A human resources department will be responsible for recruitment and selection of new employees, employee motivation and a range of other people focused activities. In addition there will be a number of cross-functional areas such as administration and Information Technology departments that service the functional areas of the company. These departments will provide back up support and training.

Organisations are structured in different ways:

1. by function as described above,

2. by regional area - a geographical structure e.g. with a marketing
manager North, marketing manager South etc.,

3. by product e.g. marketing manager crisps, marketing manager drinks, etc.,

4. into work teams, etc.,

Reporting in organisations often takes place down the line. An employee might be accountable to a supervisor, who is accountable to a junior manager, who is then accountable to a senior manager - communication and instructions can then be passed down the line.
1. Соотнесите слова и их определения.


1. shareholder

a. someone whose job is to manage part or all of a company or other organization

2. market

b. someone who owns shares in a company or business

3. accountant

c. the job of hiring people

4. recruitment

d. a place to buy and sell things

5. manager

e. someone whose job is to keep and check financial accounts


2. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на английский язык.


1. руководитель отдела продаж

6. назначать

2. начальник отдела сбыта

7. отдел информационных технологий

3. рабочая группа

8. отдел обслуживания клиентов

4. руководитель отдела маркетинга

9. начальник производственного отдела

5. акционер

10. получать заказы



3. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.


1. provide back up support

6. organisational structure

2. employee

7. work teams

3. senior manager

8. shareholder

4. junior manager

9. human resources department

5. set company targets

10. market research


4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. …….controls all the financial dealings of the company.

a) Senior Manager b) Accountant c) Sales Manager
2. The ……. is responsible for keeping a continuous supply of work flowing to all production staff.

a) Production Manager b) Sales Manager c) Distribution Manager
3. The ……. has the major responsibility for running of the company.

a) Distribution Manager b) Managing Director c) Production Manager
4. A human resources department is responsible for recruitment of new ……..

a) employers b) directors c) employees
5. A marketing department is responsible for ………

a) recruitment b) market research c) promotion
5. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is organizational structure?

2. Who are directors chosen by?

3. What is the function of a human resources department?

4. What are the main departments needed for a company to function properly?

5. What department is responsible for servicing the functional areas of the company?
6. Выполните КОПР №2 «Группа времен Simple», подтемы «Настоящее простое (Present Simple)», «Прошедшее простое (Past Simple)».


Part 2
1. Прочитайте незнакомые слова перед прослушиванием текста.
May I take a message? – Могу я что-либо передать?

software products – программные изделия

after-sales service – гарантийное и постгарантийное обслуживание
2. Прослушайте текст «Business Communications» (для прослушивания кликните один раз на приведенную ниже ссылку, удерживая клавишу «Ctrl», после загрузки страницы нажмите на кнопку проигрывателя).

Ссылка для прослушивания: http://esl-lab.com/tc1/tc1.htm
3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. Why can't Elaine Strong answer the phone?

A. She's in a meeting

B. She's out of the office

C. She's talking with another customer
2. What does caller want the secretary to send?

A. information on after-sales service

B. a picture of the newest computers

C. a list of software products
3. What time should the secretary send the material?

A. 2:30 PM

B. 3:30 PM

C. 5:00 PM
4. What is the caller's name?

A. Cordell

B. Kordel

C. Kordell
5. What is the caller's telephone number?

A. 560-1287

B. 560-1828

C. 560-2187
4. Выразите свою точку зрения.
1. An automobile company decides to open a new dealership in a foreign country. The manager is asked to choose all the possible positions and vacancies for a new dealership. What staff should be hired, what departments should be established?
2. You are an applicant at the interview applying for a position of human resources manager at a clothes shop. You are asked to enumerate the responsibilities of a distribution manager, production manager, sales manager and an accountant. What responsibilities can you mention?
3. Do you think working abroad is essential for a successful career? Why / Why not?
При ответе используйте фразы:


To my mind …

In my experience …

In my opinion …

As far as I understand …

On the one hand, …on the other hand

From my point of view …

If my memory serves me right …

If I am not mistaken …

It seems to me that …

Personally, I think …

My personal view is that …

I am sure/certain/convinced that …

The fact is that …

This proves that …

It is obvious that …

There is no doubt that …


Part 3
Ответьте на письмо, используя нижеприведенные задания. Используйте раздел «Полезные фразы для написания письма» приведенный в конце пособия. При написании ответа используйте нижеприведенное письмо в качестве образца.
You are a Director of Sales department. One of your salesmen sent you a request for promotion to the position of a sales manager. Your task is:
a) thank Mr. Watkins for his letter;

b) express Mr. Watkins the idea that you agree with his request to promote him to the position of a sales manager and give reasons for that;

c) settle the time for meeting in order to discuss all the details.



REQUEST FOR PROMOTION

17.01.2011


Tom Wilson
Electronics ltd.
12 South Street,
Sheffield, UK
125367

Dear Mr. Wilson,

As you know, I am very happy to work and contribute to Electronics ltd. under your authority.
Allow me to mention an opportunity I see for greater profits.
I'm confident that you will agree that my efforts as your salesman have been successful to the company; my sales in dollars for the past year were roughly $425,000, which far surpassed the $250,000 goal we anticipated at our year-end meeting twelve months ago.
I would like you to know that I believe I can be of even more benefit to you and Electronics ltd. as your Sales Manager.
Having had four years of experience in selling our computer software, I have gained a clear idea as to what our customers' needs are and how we can meet them. I know how we can increase sales dramatically and I can inspire our sales team to do precisely that. As your Sales Manager, I truly believe that we can achieve in excess of $10,000,000 in sales by the year 2012.
I understand that you are a very busy person. I will thus be delighted to meet with you at any time you please to discuss my request.

Cordially,

Dave Watkins



Unit 2

Part 1
Прочитайте и переведите текст.
2. Microeconomics
Microeconomics, like macroeconomics, is a fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system. It treats households and firms interacting through individual markets as irreducible elements of the economy, given scarcity and government regulation. A market might be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production, say bricklaying. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It combines these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time.

Such analysis includes the theory of supply and demand. It also examines market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly for implications as to behavior and economic efficiency. Analysis of change in a single market often proceeds from the simplifying assumption that relations in other markets remain unchanged, that is, partial-equilibrium analysis. General-equilibrium theory allows for changes in different markets and aggregates across all markets, including their movements and interactions toward equilibrium.

Here economists distinguish between Production theory, Opportunity cost, Economic efficiency, and Production-possibility frontier.

In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a commodity for exchange or direct use. Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Distinctions include such production alternatives as for consumption (food, haircuts, etc.) vs. investment goods (new tractors, buildings, roads, etc.), public goods (national defense, small-pox vaccinations, etc.) or private goods (new computers, bananas, etc.), and "guns" vs. "butter".

Opportunity cost refers to the economic cost of production: the value of the next best opportunity foregone. Choices must be made between desirable yet mutually exclusive actions. It has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice.". The opportunity cost of an activity is an element in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently, such that the cost is weighed against the value of that activity in deciding on more or less of it. Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs but could be measured by the real cost of output forgone, leisure, or anything else that provides the alternative benefit.

Inputs used in the production process include such primary factors of production as labour services, capital (durable produced goods used in production, such as an existing factory), and land (including natural resources). Other inputs may include intermediate goods used in production of final goods, such as the steel in a new car.

Economic efficiency describes how well a system generates desired output with a given set of inputs and available technology. Efficiency is improved if more output is generated without changing inputs, or in other words, the amount of "waste" is reduced. A widely-accepted general standard is Pareto efficiency, which is reached when no further change can make someone better off without making someone else worse off.
1. Соотнесите слова и их определения.


1. market

a. a situation in which there is not enough of something

2. scarcity

b. the act of buying and using products

3. goods

c. the process of making or growing things to be sold

4. consumption

d. the place where people buy and sell goods

5. production

e. things that are produced in order to be sold


2. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на английский язык.


1. редкие ресурсы

6. оптимальные издержки

2. факторы производства

7. государственное регулирование

3. спрос и предложение

8. совершенная конкуренция

4. предел производственных возможностей

9. экономическая эффективность

5. равновесие

10. вмененные потери


3. Переведите следующие слова и выражения на русский язык.


1. production theory

6. mutually exclusive actions

2. inputs and outputs

7. market changes

3. goods and services

8. real cost

4. monopoly

9. buyers and sellers

5. market structure

10. public goods


4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа.
1. A fundamental method for analyzing the economy as a system is …….

a) government regulation b) microeconomics c) production theory
2. Labour services, capital and land are called ……..

a) production process b) costs c) factors of production
3. The market may reach ……….. when price and quantity balance.

a) equilibrium b) balance c) equation
4. ………. is the conversion of inputs into outputs.

a) distribution b) consumption c) production
5. …….. include new buildings, trucks, roads, etc.

a) investment goods b) public goods c) private goods
5. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What is microeconomics?

2. What does economic efficiency describe?

3. What is production?

4. How can a market reach equilibrium?

5. What do factors of production include?
6. Выполните КОПР №2 «Группа времен Simple», подтема «Будущее простое время (Present Simple)».

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