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Неустроева Е.И. Сергучев Иннокентий Егорович. — Якутск, 2011. — 208 с.
Сергучев И. Е. Всем миром против пьянства. — Якутск: Якутское книжное издательство, 1987. — 48 с.
Сергучев И. Е. Коллектив - воспитатель ...: [Опыт Жабыл. сельсовета ЯАССР]. –Якутск: Кн. изд-во, 1985 — 91 с.
K.G.Basharin, Professor (Yakutsk); Z.K.Basharina, Professor (Yakutsk)
Sobriology: The case of the struggle for sobriety in Nuoragana (Yakutia)
In this report we will give our own definition for sobriety and focus on the practical example of one community in Yakutia which achieved excellent outcomes in the fight for sobriety. Sobriology (from Latin sobrietas - sobriety, and logos - reason, thought) is the study of sobriety and the ways of sobering individuals, families, and a society. We argue that sobriety is a natural law that governs all living things, including humans and represents the main law of sobriology. Therefore, we propose its following definition: "Sobriety is a complete independence of living organisms from alcohol, tobacco, and drug programming and actual poisoning; it involves clear and precise reflection of reality by brain; as well as natural, creative, and the only healthy and sane state of being of humankind, individuals, their families, communities, and the states. Violation of this law leads to death of the living organisms and their offspring" (K.G.Basharin, 2013).
Now we will focus on the example of the village Nuoragana in Zhabylsky district of Megino-Kanagalassky region which excelled in their work to spread sobriety in 1970s-90s. The main factor in their success was enthusiasm of Innokenty Egorovich Serguchev (1933-1996), an honored teacher of the Russian Federation, who launched a systematic and effective work for the spread of sobriety in his native community. He worked 22 years as a school principal and 14 years as a chairman of the village council. Under his leadership, the struggle for sobriety began with the design, approval and implementation of a comprehensive plan aimed at educating the population. All public organizations were assigned precise and functional responsibilities in this campaign. As a teacher of the Yakut language and literature, he wrote about a thousand works devoted to sober and healthy way of life. This creative aspect of his life is still awaiting to be investigated by researchers. His life and public activity were covered in the local and federal newspapers and magazines "The Spark", "Sakha Sire", "The News", "The Truth" "Leninskiy Banner", "Ilyich lights" "Northern territories", “The peasant”.
I.E.Serguchev said that his personal aversion to alcohol and his belief in the need to struggle for sobriety were based on the fact that alcohol destroys the gene pool of people. He asked people who consumed alcohol: "How much did your family expand over the last 2-3 generations?” Many could not respond. Serguchev noted:
...in Zhabil one old man M.Varlamov with his own children by the third generation has up to a hundred grandchildren and great-grandchildren. How many children and grandchildren will a young man in his 30s or 40s have, if he is a victim of alcohol consumption? So the most important reason in advocating and leading the alcohol-free lifestyle is for the sake of future generations.
In the spirit of his time Serguchev believed that the struggle for sobriety is necessary to improve the competitiveness of the population especially in the industrial sector. He wrote:
Now it is clear that the future development of our country relies more and more on East Siberia, including Yakutia. In the near future, the railway will reach Yakutia, there will be an intensive development of industry, and all these will surely attract to Yakutia a large number of people from the central regions. We, the natives of Yakutia, will be able to work alongside with the newcomers only if we have the same ability to work on advanced technologies and if we have high level of culture. Are we ready to participate in highly technological projects?
In the 1950s and 1960s the consumption of wine and vodka was associated with the growth of wealth and well-being in the eyes of ordinary people. The saying "the one who worked hard deserves a drink” was very popular. Up until 1974, the village Nuorgana was on the first place by the level of committed crimes. Out of the 173 people of working age, 68 were officially considered alcoholics; truancy, absence from work, and crimes were wide-spread. There were many school dropouts. It was found that in the families of failed students one or both parents were alcoholics.
The farm’s leaders did not know how to handle the situation. Then, the principal of the local 8-year school I.E. Serguchev gave a math problem to his students that read: “how much money does a family spend per year if they drink a bottle of vodka and smoke the 3 packs of the cigarettes “Belomor” a day?” It turned out that within a year it would have been possible to buy several bicycles and a tricar motorcycle. Serguchev’s math problem impacted people. The school's staff, led by I.E.Serguchev, found a systematic and goal-oriented approach to eliminate drinking and smoking. They set the goal for the parents to raise their children in the spirit of sobriety, i.e. they prioritized preventive methods. They emphasized not the top down, but the bottom up approach, as an anti-alcoholic campaign in every family, which would expand in the course of time to include other communities. They assigned the parents committee to implement the systematic work with parents-alcoholics and provide assistance to these families. The community decided to ban the payment for services involving tractor drivers with vodka (out of 13 tractor drivers 12 were alcoholics) and to serve the guests alcoholic beverages at home.
Mikhail Borisov put up the flyer in the community center: “I have been drinking for over 20 years. For the sake of my children I quit drinking entirely and call others to follow my example.” Soon Serguchev was elected as a head of the executive committee of the village council.
In 1981 the "Society of sobriety" was established, which in 1985 involved 78 committed non-drinkers, representing 10% of the total population of the village. Let us review what have been implemented by this society:
1. Systematic educational work about the harmful influence of alcohol. This included organizing and conducting meetings, debates, discussions, theme parties, and cultural events.
2. The introduction of the new rituals and traditions such as non-alcoholic parties and weddings. The main responsibility of each member of the society was to implement the work within his or her family by introducing non-alcoholic traditions.
3. The organization of lectures among workers and school children with participation of former alcoholics who shared with their experience of quitting drinking. It was a powerful support and rehabilitation of these people.
4. Release of the wall newspapers and magazines, which published appeals and articles and sharing of experience among propaganda centers regarding setting the exemplary public order.
5. Individual work with individuals who were prone to alcohol.
6. Based on the initiative of the members of the community, the order and amount of the sale of alcohol were established in the village, the operation of the store was taken under control.
7. Incentives were introduced for those individuals who consciously quitted alcohol consumption; the causes that would motivate alcohol consumption were being eliminated.
8. A systematic work on arranging and organizing leisure time among population, and especially among young people was conducted.
9. The members of the society considered their responsibility to demonstrate on their own example how to excel in work, family, and public life. They were the best advocates for sobriety.
During 11 years of leadership by I.E.Serguchev in the village of Nuoragana 18 new houses were built, 162 TV sets, 74 motorcycles, and 11 cars were purchase, five families were given tractors, the village was awarded a motorcycle, two cars, and cash bonuses. Serguchev IE was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labor. The reports of the sovkhoz (farm) from 1974 to 1985 show the increase in productivity and improvement of the labor discipline. For example, it has been reported that all the tasks of the 11th Five-Year Plan have been implemented ahead of time by October 1, 1985; Zhabylsky district council in the last 5 years received the first place for the excellence in social services. It was also on the first place in the republic by the elimination of crimes. 63 people (8%) quit drinking , 37 of them quit alcohol on their own will. 113 people (14%) gave up smoking. The sale of alcohol has decreased significantly: in 1974 they sold alcohol on the amount of 50,000 rubles, or 33 bottles a year per adult, and in 1984 they sold alcohol on the amount of 12,000 rubles or 8 bottles per adult. Previously, some skeptics argued that reduction of the sales of alcohol would fail the trade plans. It did not, on the contrary, the store began to achieve and over-achieve the plan. In 1974, the total turnover was 350 thousand rubles and the plan was not implemented, and after the campaign for sobriety the total turnover comprised 495,000 rubles.
The work on the formation of sobriety did not cease after the death of Serguchev, it had positive outcomes in the following years. In March 15, 2005, based on the initiative of the Women's Committee of the district, the conference was held, and in 2006 the 85th anniversary of Zhabylskaya school was celebrated, in which the 32 years of work for sobriety was summarized. At that time, 160 families with the total of 770 people lived in the community.
150 (19.5%) gave up alcohol, out of this number 57 quitted voluntarily (38.0%) and 93 received treatment
Out of the 120 young people aged 18 to 30, 43 (35.8%) studied at the universities, 23 (19.2%) studied in vocational schools, 19 (32, 5%) were working youth and 15 (12.5%) were unemployed.
Over the past years only 2 registered criminal offenses have been committed (in the prisons of the republic there were 6.5 thousand people at that time).
Since 2000, during 6 years, 43 people passed away, 91 people were born, i.e. the birth rate exceeded the death rate by 2.5 times. This is the best result in the republic.
The non-alcoholic parties and weddings are held in the village. Alcohol-free festivals such as the summer festival devoted to the meeting of the summer "Doroobo, kүөh Saiyn," women festivals, the holiday of hay harvesting on July 9, the exhibition "Kere - attybytygar" ("the beauty is around us") in October are held annually.
39 families (24.4%) arrange alcohol-free parties, thus setting the positive example to their children.
The sale of alcohol in the village is 5 liters per person annually (compare to the rest of Russia with 18L. per person). In private stores they do not sell alcoholic beverages. A turnover in the general store is on the first place in the republic, which proves the misconception that the ban of the sale of alcohol reduces turnover.
The life expectancy increased in the village. There are 45 people (5.8%), who are 70 to 104 years old.
70-80% of the students enter universities and colleges every year. There are no students who have not completed the secondary school.
Thus, the analysis of the continuous work for sobriety in Zhabylsky district proves that:
1) Sobriety is a major factor in the prosperity of the family, village, district, republic, and a country as a whole.
2) Success depends on the effectiveness of leaders at all levels. We need to elect sober deputies and heads of districts and municipalities.
3) The work must begin within the family where both parents are non-drinkers and are actively advocating sober way of life. A striking example is the Serguchev family, who raised 13 children, and who we consider the first sobriologists of Yakutia. In order to honor her husband, E.I. Sergucheva continued to work after his death, and in 2011 released an excellent book in Yakut language "Serguchev I.E.," thereby, immortalizing his name. The fruitful activity of the spouses Serguchev proves that alcoholism can be overcome not only in a single village, but a district and republic.
Neustroeva E.I. Serguchev Innocenty Yegorovich. — Yakutsk, 2011. — 208 p.
Serguchev I.E. With the whole world against drunkenness. —Yakutsk Publishing House, 1987. — 48 p.
Serguchev I.E. The community which educates... [Experience of Zhabilsky Village Council YASSR] Yakutsk Publishing House, 1985 - 91.
И.В. Николаев, профессор (Новосибирск)
Фундаментальные основания собриологии,
как инструменты диагностики современного
состояния российского общества.
В настоящей работе представлены:
1. Эпохальное открытие эффекта Найсли-Москоу-Пеннингтона по агглютинации эритроцитов под воздействием этилового спирта. Открытие, подтверждённое в СССР А.П. Явлиным, Л.Е. Поповым, В.Л. Поповым и Е.Ю. Черкашиным;
2. Дискретные уровни алкоголизации населения по классификации д.э.н., профессора Б.И. Искакова;
3. Уточнено значение величины критического уровня душевого потребления алкоголя, составляющего 6,8 л/чел∙год, - алкогольная «точка невозврата» - после достижения которого в обществе развиваются необратимые деградационные процессы;
4. Дано аналитическое выражение, описывающее так называемую «культуропитейскую» кривую, на которой в динамике отмечено положение России в 1980 и в 2009 годах;
5. Показано, что при превышении критического уровня душевого потребления алкоголя, равного 6,0 л/чел∙год, смертность населения становится линейной функцией душевого потребления алкоголя в обществе;
6. Представлена аналитически и графически функциональная зависимость показателя рождаемости от уровня душевого потребления алкоголя – подлинный «русский крест»;
7. Графически и аналитически на основе формулы Детиненко-Гражданникова представлена зависимость доли дефективных детей из общего числа новорождённых от уровня душевого потребления алкоголя.
На основе этих данных сделан вывод о закритическом состоянии нынешнего российского общества, обречённого на скорую и неминуемую гибель.
1. Открытие Найсли-Москоу-Пеннигтона.
Цитата из «Методических указаний для преподавателей-кураторов студенческих групп» профессора Л.Е. Попова (г. Томск: ТИСИ, 1979, тираж – 200 экз.) : «В последнее десятилетие выяснилось, что, помимо прямого воздействия на обмен веществ в тканях, и нарушений в проведении нервных импульсов, алкоголь оказывает разрушительное воздействие на весь организм человека ещё одним, самым неожиданным образом. Результаты… исследований, полученных Найсли, Москоу и Пеннигтоном в США, и А.П. Явлиным в Советском Союзе, заставили по-новому взглянуть на механизм и масштабы вреда, приносимые алкоголем человеку. В первых опытах Мелвина Найсли и его сотрудников была использована техника длиннофокусной микроскопии, разработанная металловедами для наблюдений за поведением материалов непосредственно в тех условиях, при которых этим материалам предстоит служить (например, при высоких температурах). Длиннофокусные микроскопы позволили отодвинуть объектив микроскопа от образца на расстояние порядка сантиметра.
Применительно к медицине появление длиннофокусных микроскопов означало возможность наблюдения на клеточном уровне за процессами, происходящими в живом организме. Для того чтобы «взглянуть» в живого человека, Найсли и его коллеги воспользовались роговицей глаза, т.е. тем прозрачным окном, через которое человек смотрит во внешний мир. Под роговицей удаётся рассмотреть даже мельчайшие кровеносные сосуды – капилляры. Исследователи не ставили перед собой специальной задачи изучения влияния алкоголя на кровообращение по той простой причине, что, начиная опыты, они и не подозревали, что такое влияние существует.
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