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Ю.Р. Овечкина, Н. С. Роготнева
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИКЕ
ОСНОВНОГО ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 3 КУРСОВ
«Уральский государственный педагогический университет»
Институт иностранных языков
Кафедра английского языка
Ю.Р. Овечкина, Н.С. Роготнева
МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИКЕ
ОСНОВНОГО ИНОСТРАННОГО ЯЗЫКА (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ 3 КУРСОВ
ББК Ш 143.21-923.8
Рецензенты: О. И. Василенко, к.ф.н., доцент кафедры английского языка; Н. Г. Шехтман, к.ф.н., доцент кафедры английского языка.
Авторы-составители: Ю. Р. Овечкина, ассистент кафедры английского языка УрГПУ; Н. С. Роготнева, ассистент кафедры английского языка УрГПУ.
Овечкина Ю. Р., Роготнева Н. С.
Theatre=театр [Текст]: методическое пособие по устной речи для студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по специальности «050303 – Иностранный язык»/ Ю. Р. Овечкина, Н. С. Роготнева; Урал.гос.пед.ун-т. – Екатеринбург, 2010. – 104 с.
Учебное пособие адресовано студентам факультетов иностранных языков, изучающим английский язык как специальность. Пособие включает дополнительный лексический материал, текстовый материал и комплексную систему упражнений для отработки навыков и умений устной и письменной речи по теме «Theatre».
Овечкина Юлия Рафаиловна, Роготнева Надежда Сергеевна
Подписано в печать _______ . Формат 60 x 84/16 ________
Бумага для множительных аппаратов. Печать на ризографе.
Усл. П. л. 6.3. Тираж _____ экз. Заказ _____
Оригинал-макет отпечатан в отделе множительной техники
Уральского государственного педагогического университета
620017 Екатеринбург, просп. Космонавтов, 26.
© Уральский государственный
педагогический университет, 2010
© Овечкина Ю.Р., Роготнева Н.С., 2010
Настоящее пособие по дисциплине «Практический курс иностранного языка» для студентов третьего курса содержит дополнительный материал по теме «Theatre» и имеет целью помочь студентам выработать навыки и умения устной речи в рамках данной темы. Пособие предназначено, главным образом, для аудиторной работы (36 часов), а также может быть использовано в процессе самостоятельной работы студентов с последующим контролем на аудиторных занятиях.
Пособие включает дополнительный лексический материал, текстовый материал и комплексную систему упражнений для отработки навыков и умений устной и письменной речи, а именно:
Все задания тематически выдержаны, что способствует более глубокому и всестороннему усвоению темы. Тексты сопровождаются комментарием, который позволяет обеспечить их наиболее полное понимание и восполнить недостаток фоновых знаний у студентов.
Рекомендации по работе со структурой учебно-методического пособия по теме «Театр».
Пособие подготовлено в соответствие с рабочей учебной программой по дисциплине «Практический курс иностранного языка» (английский язык).
Учебно-методическое пособие разработано таким образом, что может быть использовано на занятиях по практике устной речи выборочно, либо в полном объеме, порядок работы с материалом, представленным в пособии может варьироваться в зависимости от целей урока и интересов обучающихся.
Учебно-методическое пособие охватывает работу над всеми видами речевой деятельности: монологическую и диалогическую речь, чтение, аудирование, письмо, что позволяет развить все составляющие коммуникативной компетенции студентов. Пособие включает как наиболее употребительную лексику, так и частные слова и выражения по теме «Театр», что способствует значительному расширению словаря индивидуального пользования у студентов.
VOCABULARY NOTES AND DRILLS
THEATRE, DRAMA, COMPANY, TROUP
It should be stressed right from the beginning that the English word theatre is more restricted in application than the Russian театр. In general it refers only to drama, and does not include opera and ballet. The following short conversation illustrates the confusion which may arise from using theatre in a Russian sense:
T a n y a: I’m going to the theatre tonight.
A n n e: Oh, yes? What are you going to see?
T a n y a: “Giselle”
A n n e: Oh. … I didn’t know it was a play as well as a ballet.
T a n y a: It isn’t. At least I don’t think so. It’s the ballet I’m going to see.
A n n e: I’m sorry. I didn’t understand. You said you were going to the theatre, so I thought it must be a play.
In this situation Tanya should have said:
I’m going to the ballet tonight.
Since theatre refers only to drama, we do not say drama theatre. Драматический театр is translated simply as theatre. Theatre may be used in contrast to other types of entertainment.
e.g. – Do you like opera and ballet?
– Not very much. I prefer the theatre.
Theatre has following uses:
(Meaning it’s not dramatically effective on the stage. N O T E: no article.)
2) a building where plays are performed;
In this second sense, theatre is sometimes used also with reference to other forms of entertainment, for example, opera and ballet, although only when it is already clear from the context what form of entertainment is meant. For example, sentence (c) above could refer to opera or ballet, since the speaker and the person addressed already know what type of entertainment they are going to, and there is therefore no risk of misunderstanding.
In some cases the two senses merge. For example, in I’m going to the theatre tonight, theatre means first of all drama, a play (Cf.: I’m going to the opera/ballet/cinema), but the idea of the building where the play is to be performed is also present.
Note that go is more widely used than visit in this type of sentence. Visit is mainly confined to formal style, particularly in writing. Even in formal style, however, the verb visit is comparatively rare, although as a noun it occurs fairly often.
e.g. A Visit to the Theatre (title of a composition, or chapter in a textbook)
In some cases the use of the verb visit with theatre may suggest an interest in the building rather than what is performed there.
A theatre party means a group of people going to the theatre together.
e.g. David’s organizing/arranging a theatre party.
Drama is almost but not quite synonymous with theatre. For example, in sentences 1 (a) and (b) above, drama could be used instead of the theatre.
In sentences (c) and (d), however, drama is unlikely to occur. Even in sentences where either is possible, there may be a slight difference of emphasis. Drama tends to imply a more theoretical, academic, or professional approach, whereas theatre is generally more closely connected with the actual performance on the stage.
Drama is used in the following expressions:
Theatre school occurs to, but much less often. The words drama, dramatic also appear in the names of the most well-know drama schools in Britain:
The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
often called RADA
The Central School of Speech and Drama
Drama student - student of drama
However, theatre critic is equally common.
Drama is also used as a countable noun meaning a serious play.
e.g. The Contractor, drama in two acts by David Storey. (David Storey is a well-known modern English writer, author of the novel “This Sporting Life” and several successful plays.)
Theatre, company, troupe
Sometimes theatre denotes both the building and the actors, directors, etc. who work there, by extension.
a. There are a lot of good theatres in Moscow.
b. The Gorky Theatre is considered by many people to be the best in Leningrad.
In cases where a theatre building is the home of a permanent company, such usage is natural. In Britain, however, this is not always so and English people therefore tend to distinguish between the theatre (meaning the building) and the company (meaning the actors, directors, etc.). For example, on the cover of a Royal Shakespeare Theatre programme for Hamlet we see:
ROYAL SHAKESPEARE THEATRE
And inside we read:
“The Royal Shakespeare Company are divided between the country and the capital, playing concurrently at two theatres for most of the year. They appear at their Stratford-on-Avon home, the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, from April to November; and at their London home, the Aldwych Theatre, from June to March.
The corporation of the City of London is building the RSC a new London theatre in the Barbican Arts Center. This should be ready by 1972 and the company will move there from the Aldwych.”
Note: Since this was written, work on the arts centre has been considerably delayed, presumably by rising costs, and it has not yet been built.
“Of the RSC’s two theatres, the parent is the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, which was called the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre from 1879, when it was founded, to 1961. … it was gutted by fire in 1926, to be replaced six year later by the present building.”
Troupe [tru:p] has the same meaning as company but is seldom used in connection with the modern theatre.
In order to understand properly the distinction between theatre and company, and the meaning of several words connected with the theatre, it is necessary to know something about the way in which the theatre is organized in Britain, especially the system of subsidized and commercial theatres.
1. Give your associations with the word “Theatre”.
2. Give your associations with the word “Theatre”.
Troupe, House full, Encore, Artist, T…, R…, E…
3. Choose the definition for the following words: drama and theatre.
1) Actual performance on stage
2) Doesn’t include opera and ballet
4) Dramatic art
5) A theoretical, academic, professional approach
4. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate words (drama or theatre).
- Not very much. I prefer the ______.
5. Find the correct words for:
1) a building for the performance of plays;
2) a dramatic composition with music in which the words are sung;
3) a man who acts on the stage or for cinema films;
4) a well-known modern composer, the author of rock operas;
5) a group of people trained to sing together;
6) the main character of one of Shakespeare’s plays;
8) a person who performs music for the love of it, not for money.
6. Read the following utterances. In what meaning is the word “theatre” used there? Do you personally agree or disagree with the statements?
A boy of 14: You ask me if I love theatre. Oh no, I am not interested in it at all. Theatre is our past and now is a time of television and video. I think that teenagers don’t like to visit theatres.
A girl of 15: What do I think of theatre? I can’t say that I am a theatre-goer; but sometimes when I have free time and no idea how to spend it, I go to the theatre with my friends, but only to our musical theatre, as I am sure that theatre exists for our amusement and entertainment. When I am at the theatre I don’t want to think much, I only want to rest, to laugh and enjoy myself.
A girl of 14: I love theatre very much, and my friends consider me to be a theatre-fan. I am fond of seeing comedies, dramas and even tragedies; but I also watch ballets and listen to operas occasionally. They are difficult for me. I understand that this is bad, but in our town there is no opera-house and children are not taught to understand this art. It’s a pity.
A boy of 15: My thoughts about theatre? Well, I think that this kind of art is dying now, because nobody is interested in the fact that young people don’t like it. Though in our town there are some theatres, it is difficult for teenagers or youth to see a play. Such plays are not staged in our theatres. This is bad. That’s why theatres are visited mostly by grown-ups and old people. I think that something should be done to change the situation. Each town should have a children’s theatre.
SUBSIDIZED AND COMMERCIAL THEATRES (IN BRITAIN)
Theatres in Britain are of two types: subsidized and commercial.
Subsidized theatres are publicly owned, and supported from public funds by a subsidy from the Arts Council and/or the local authority. They have a permanent company of directors, actors, designers, etc., and each season stage several productions, which are presented in repertory. The most well-known are:
Or: The National (colloq.)
3. The English Stage Company The Royal Court Theatre, London
The National Theatre (in the sense of the building) is a whole complex consisting of three theatres of varying size and design, situated on the south bank of the Thames beside Waterloo Bridge. The theatres are:
The National Theatre was opened in March 1976, although at first performances took place only in the Lyttleton Theatre. Now all three are in use. From 1963, when the National Theatre company was founded, until the new buildings were opened, the company performed at the Old Vic, a
Victorian theatre formerly called the Royal Victoria Theatre, near Waterloo Bridge. The old Vic had its own company, the Old Vic Company, until 1963, when it merged with a company from the Chichester Theatre Festival under Laurence Olivier, to become the National Theatre company.
Most provincial towns of a certain size have a subsidized theatre. Among the better-known are:
The Birmingham Repertory Theatre T he Nottingham Playhouse
The Liverpool Repertory Theatre The Bristol Old Vic
The Oxford Playhouse The Belgrade Theatre,
Civic theatre is often used of those theatres which are built and supported by a city.
Regional theatre denotes a theatre (or theatres collectively) outside London. It is generally preferred to provincial, which often has a pejorative connotation, suggesting second-rate.
Commercial theatres are those which receive no subsidy and are therefore run on a commercial basis. This means that they have to cover all their costs from the sale of tickets, besides which they hope to make a profit. A commercial theatre is simply a building, with no resident company. It is privately owned, and run by a manager, who arranges with a director to stage a particular production. The director then arranges auditions (пробы, прослушивания), which any actors who are free may attend, casts the play, rehearses it, and then the production opens. Since only one production is put on at a time, it does not alternate with others, as in the subsidized theatre, but is presented every evening, sometimes twice, as long as enough tickets are sold to make commercially profitable. When the income from the sale of tickets falls below a certain level, the play is taken off, and the theatre manager arranges for another production to be staged, usually by a different director, who chooses mainly different actors.
Most of the London theatres (over 30) are of this type. Since they are nearly all situated in the West End (i.e. the western part of the centre), this name is sometimes used to denote the London commercial theatres collectively.
e.g. “Oliver” had a long and successful run in the West End.
Run is used both as a verb and as a noun with reference to the system practiced in the commercial theatre, whereby, one production is presented every evening as a long as it is financially worthwhile.
Here are some more examples:
In the case of long runs, the cast may be changed.
Note that although commercial theatres are privately owned, we do not call them private theatres. A private theatre is one which is not open to the public, for example, in someone’s house, or in a palace.
1. Discuss the difference between subsidized and commercial theatres with your friend.
2. Is there such a phenomenon in Russia? How does the system function in this country?
3. Render the text on subsidized and commercial theatres in Britain. Learn it by heart.
REPERTORY, REPERTOIRE, CAST
These are two variants of the same word, the second borrowed from French without change of form. Their meanings are basically the same, that is, in connection with the theatre, the stock of productions which a company is able to present at a given time (репертуар).
In many cases they may be used interchangeably.
Although repertoire seems to be more common than repertory in such sentences, the choice of one or the other is a matter of individual style.
In repertoire/repertory means “in rotation, in turn, alternating with other productions”. For example, subsidized theatre stages each season several productions, which are presented in repertory. This system is contrasted with the systems of runs characteristic of the commercial theatre.
Here repertory seems to be more common than repertoire.
In repertory (but not repertoire) may also mean “mean in a repertory company” (see below).
A repertory company/theatre is a company/theatre run according to the repertory system, at least in theory. A large number of such theatres were established in London and the provinces at the beginning of the century and by the 1930’s there were over a hundred. By the beginning of the 1969’s, however, the number of repertory theatres outside London had been reduced to around forty. THE DICTIONARY OF THE THEATRE says of them:
“The essential of a repertory company, strictly speaking, is that it should have several productions - a repertory of productions in fact - ready at the same time, so that the play presented can change from night to night. This ideal has rarely been realized in practice, except in a number of London companies… The term is more usually used to denote companies which play each production for only a limited period - generally two or three weeks-and have a certain continuity of acting personnel from one production to the other. This is the case with most of the provincial repertory companies …”
Not all the repertory theatres contain the word repertory in their name. Birmingham Repertory Theatre does, for example, but others do not.
e.g. The Belgrade Theatre, Coventry
The Glasgow Citizens’ Theatre
As a general term, repertory company/theatre is less common now than when these companies were numerous and successful, before the Second World War. New theatres in the provinces are usually called civic theatres or regional theatres.
Repertory with reference to a repertory company/theatre is often abbreviated to rep.
e.g. a. I saw at Birmingham Rep.
b. (Speaking of an actor) He began his career in rep.
This word should be carefully distinguished from company. It means the group of actors appearing in a particular performance (состав, действующие лица).
e.g. a. There are some very famous actors in the cast tonight.
b. I saw that production, but with a different cast.
c. –“The Mousetrap” has been running for over 20 years.
– What? With the same cast?
– Oh no. They’ve changed the cast several times.
Cast list is used to mean the list of actors taking part. In Britain this may be printed in the programme, or on a separate sheet, which is free, for example, in some subsidized theatres.
Cast may also be used as a verb, meaning to choose actors for the parts, and casting to mean the choice.
e.g. a. They’re casting (for) “Macbeth” next week.
b. Paul Scofield was cast for the part of Macbeth.
c. The play is well cast.
d. Judi Dench is well cast in the part of Catherine (in “The Taming of the Shrew”). (Judi Dench is a well-known English actress who has appeared in many productions of Shakespeare, mainly with the Royal Shakespeare Company.)
e. Casting is a very important in any production.
MEMBERS OF A COMPANY AND THEIR WORK
Director, Producer, Manager and Related Words
The usage of director, producer and manager in Britain has gradually changed over the last twenty to thirty years, mainly under American influence, and is not yet fixed, so that it is difficult to form a clear picture. The following units present the main tendencies as clearly and simply as possible. However, readers should bear in mind that in practice there are many inconsistencies and variations.
This is the usual title in modern English for the person who heads a company. Besides staging plays, i.e. casting, rehearsing the actors in their roles, ordering movement on the stage (придумывает мизансцены), etc. He is responsible for the artistic policy and administration of the company. Large companies generally have two or three directors. For example, the Royal Shakespeare Company has three, of which one, called the managing director, is the most important. The National Theatre also has three, the most important called simply the director, and the others associate directors. Some companies have two directors differing according to their function rather than according to their relative importance: an artistic director and an administrative director.
What has been said above naturally refers to the subsidized theatre. In the commercial theatre there is no company, and the director is therefore simply the person engaged to stage a particular production.
This use of director comes from America, and is comparatively recent in British English. It has replaced the traditional British producer.
This word was used until fairly recently in Britain to denote the person who stages, or produces a play, as described in previous unit, and some English people continue to use it in this sense. On the whole, however, this idea is now expressed by director, and producer, if used at all, tends to have its American meaning: the person responsible for the financial side of a production or company.
This word is defined in THE DICTIONARY OF THE THEATRE as follows:
“ The person responsible for the whole financial side of a theatrical production: he chooses the play, arranges for the hire of a theatre if he does not own one, and engages directors, actors, etc., as well as controlling the takings.”
This is clearly the same meaning as the American meaning of producer given above. In spite of American influence, manager continues to be widely used in Britain.
The definition from THE DICTIONARY OF THE THEATRE evidently applies to the commercial theatre, where there are no permanent companies. In the subsidized theatre a manager of this type is not necessary. Here, however, there are managers with purely administrative responsibilities. For example, the Royal Shakespeare Company has a general manager, and there is a manager for each of their theatres: a Stratford manager and a London manger.
Manager is also used of various people with specific administrative functions, such as:
Box-office manager: the manager in charge of the sale of tickets.
House manager: the person in charge of the house or auditorium.
Stage manager: the person who supervises the arrangement of scenery and props on the stage.
Management is often used as a collective term for those running the theatre (дирекция).
e.g. The management announced that the theatre would be closed for repairs and redecorations until October 1st.
In view of the complications arising from changes and variations in the usage of director, producer and manager, the following table may make the position clearer:
Before leaving the subject of directors, producers and managers, let us consider the usage of the verbs direct, and produce, from which they are derived, and the nouns production, performance, and show.
These two verbs are practically synonymous, and mean to be in general charge of a theatrical production, casting, rehearsing actors in their parts, and ordering movement on the stage.
Produce is traditional term in Britain, but, like producer, it is gradually being replaced by direct, under American influence.
e.g. a. The play is directed by Peter Hall.
b. Peter Hall is directing two new Shakespeare productions at Stratford this season.
However, if the word director is in the sentence, direct is avoided for stylistic reasons, and produce is used instead.
e.g. The two plays were produced by different directors.
In addition, produce is wider in its application than direct, since it may refer to the organization and/or financing of a production (possibly increasingly, under the influence of the American use of producer). Thus we can say that a certain theatre, company, management, produce a play, but not that they direct in.
Alternatives to direct, produce
Stage is sometimes a useful alternative to direct, produce, generally with reference to the artistic side.
e.g. John Dexter has staged several plays by Arnold Wesker at the Royal Court (Theatre).
It is, however, sometimes used loosely to include the administrative and financial side.
e.g. The Royal Court (Theatre) has staged several plays by Arnold Wesker.
Put on is used mainly with reference to the administrative and financial side.
e.g. a. The Royal Court has put on several plays by Arnold
b. It costs a lot of money to put on a musical.
c. Theatre managements are often reluctant to put on plays by unknown playwrights.
Present may be used with reference to the company, although it more often refers to the management.
e.g. a. In the commercial theatre the same play is presented every night as long as it is successful.
b. The Royal Court (Theatre) are presenting a series of plays by D. H. Lawrence this season.
Do may generally replace any of the above verbs in the colloquial style.
e.g. a. The National (Theatre) are doing “ The Rivals” (by Sheridan) next season.
b. The Royal Court did a series of play by D. H. Lawrence.
These words should be carefully distinguished.
The production is that version of the play which the director creates for presentation on the stage, whereas the performance is a single enactment. There may be many performances of one production, with or without change of cast.
Here are some examples of usage:
– Oh yes? What productions are they bringing?
Production generally corresponds to постановка, and performance to спектакль or исполнение. In Russian, however, there is a tendency to use спектакль as a synonym of постановка.
e.g. a. Это их самый лучший спектакль.
b. Какие спектакли они привезли?
Russian speakers should beware of using performance in such sentences. One production is possible here.
Performance is used in the following expressions:
This corresponds in some case to премьера. However, it refers literally to the first performance, and should not be used for the second, third, etc. Here new production should be used.
e.g. a. It’s a new production.
b. We’re going to see a new production at the Lensoviet Theatre tonight.
Note that in the case of those commercial theatres which have two performances of the same production each evening, first performance may mean the first of the evening, the early performance.
First night is sometimes used instead of first performance in its main sense.
Premiere is an Americanism which is increasingly used in Britain as an alternative to first performance, especially in combination with other words.
e.g. British premiere
This is clear enough, but note that matinee is used for earlier performances, which in England are generally in the afternoon, at two or two thirty.
Morning/afternoon performance may be used with reference to Russian theatres, however, for the sake of clarity.
Show is sometimes used in the sense of “performance”.
e.g. After the show they went backstage to congratulate the actors
It also means any theatrical entertainment.
e.g. a. They spent the day sightseeing and in the evening went to a show.
b. We sometimes go to a show in the West End.
In such sentences, however, show generally suggests some form of light entertainment, such as a musical or a variety show, rather than a serious play.
A variety show is one consisting of a series of numbers such as songs and other musical item, dances, jokes (анекдоты), conjuring tricks (фокусы), acrobatic turns, and so on. In the case of non-musical items, act may be used instead of number (also at the circus). The show has a compere (конферансье). Compere may also be used as a verb.
e.g. The show was compered by…
Show business is fairly often used by journalists and some other people to mean the theatrical profession, or the entertainment industry.
e.g. He’s in snow business.
1. Choose an appropriate meaning(s) for the following words.
2. Discuss in mini-groups what member of a company you would like to be. Give your reasons.
3. Imagine that you are a senior drama student dreaming of an actor’s career. Make your conversation with a friend of the family who is a stage manger of a theatre.
ACTORS AND ACTING
The words actor, actress present no difficulty.
Acting is used in the sense of игра (актеров) in such sentences as:
Play naturally cannot be used in this sense. The noun play corresponds to пьеса, as illustrated by the following sentence:
The verb to play, however, is used in the sense of играть.
e.g. Who played Hamlet?
To appear (in) or simply to be (in) are often used in the sense of “act”, “play”. Appear occurs in formal style.
e.g. a. Laurence Olivier is now appearing in the “ Long Day’s Journey into Night” by Eugene O’Neill.
b. He has appeared in many successful productions.
To be is widely used in non-formal situations.
e.g. a. - I saw “Twelfth Night” yesterday.
- Oh yes? Who was in it?
b. (Speaking of an actor) He was in “The Price” (by Arthur Miller), wasn’t he?
c. He’s been in a lot of interesting productions.
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