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Principles of Establishing the Sobriety among the Youth
The principal concepts for establishing the sobriety in the youth midst are the conception of a personality (an individual, individuality, an individuum, a person, an ego). They should be taken as the basis for the formulation of methodological principles for the achievement of the sobriety among young people. And what are these methodological principles, which may be taken as the basis for the analysis of the establishment of a sober person?
Such principles for the achievement of the sobriety among young people represent the system of basic measures, the primary statement in the theory of sobriology, in the prevention of any alcohol consumption and in the formation of the temperance among the youth.
The Principle of Scientific Approach presupposes the objective analysis of the public development laws and a new social type of an individual, the dynamics of negative social phenomena "feeding" the alcohol need, the scientific management of the personality formation processes and the development pathology prevention, the elaboration and implementation of advanced scientifically grounded forms and methods of the temperance activity.
The Principle of Social Activity means the active involvement of young members of society in the elimination of dialectic contradictions, the use of public opinion, the active sober position of an individual for the reconstruction of an individual commonplace mass consciousness with respect to the alcohol consumption and drug taking. It presupposes the reliance on the conscious initiative of working people, their sympathy to goals of the temperance policy.
The Principle of Consistency implies the systemic interaction of all scientific and practical lines of activities for the formation of a new sober type of a personality and the prevention of the alcohol deformation as well as adjusting integrative relations between the social policy as a whole and its separate parts, between objects of educational-prophylactic processes etc.
The Principle of Early Prevention appears from the general goal of the temperance policy in this field. It stipulates the orientation of the whole social protection system from the alcohol consumption to the early prevention of such abuse, at the primacy of the prevention over the punishment, the education over the re-education, at the early reveal and elimination of negative prerequisites for the individual development.
The Principle of Differentiation presupposes the hierarchy and the distribution of measures for the educational-preventive influence on different age-sexual, social groups and sub-groups, the consideration of a particular situation in each person development, the use of individual methods of temperance effect.
The Principle of Legality. The sober activity in a family is to be based on the unconditional observation of laws and respective regulatory acts. When drawing up a plan of the temperance activity and determining its forms and methods as well as measures of influence on delinquents, the main attention should be paid to ensuring the protection of legal rights and interests of citizens. This requirement applies to all officials, members of public and religious organizations and employees of a company, an institution, an establishment.
The Principle of Reality and Economic Expediency. The preventive temperance work should be based on the analysis of the labour disciplinary situation, public order and the arrangement of struggle with lawbreakers taking into account available financial and technical potentialities, staffing resources of a company, an institution, an establishment. The demand of the economic expediency implies the assessment of the efficiency of elaborated preventive measures.
The Principle of Specificity. The specificity implies the detection of the most urgent lines of prevention, the determination of direct participants in preventive activity, forms of prevention work and measures of influence on drink-lovers, aids for solving sobriety tasks assigned to such prevention participants, terms of the scheduled arrangements execution and forms of control.
Directivity means that such preventive measures are binding for the implementation by all participants in the preventive activity of a work and study collective body. Such approach to the preventive activity is aimed at the provision of joint efforts of all persons who are engaged in this important work; the cooperation with participants in the district (city) prevention activity; the elaboration of various preventive measures with their inclusion in different kinds of labour/study collective body activity, interconnection of such plans. First of all, it should be taken into consideration when planning preventive measures against the most common offences in work teams, which require efforts of all links in the prevention system.
The requirement of a program-purposive approach to the temperance work among the youth implies the elaboration of long-term goals for the whole activity of the collective body in the prevention of alcohol consumption and other drugs taking, which may be attained by the end of a planned period, as well as immediate specific purposes and tasks in single lines of such preventive activity, the preparation of a program of actions for participants in the preventive activity and the financial support of scheduled arrangements.
The linkage of the establishing the sobriety among young people with measures of economic and social nature enables to reveal the extent of the interdependence of carried out social and economic reformations and the situation with alcohol consumption in a collective body, the effectiveness of the preventive influence on the strengthening of labour, study and production discipline, the economic and social development of a company, an institution, an establishment.
The Principle of Complexity, the essence thereof is an approach to the problem of the extirpation of tobacco, alcohol and other drug consumption like to a complex phenomenon requiring the joint coordinated efforts of governmental, trade-union authorities, business managers, public, confessional, medical, socio-cultural institutions, labour and study collective bodies, scientific centers. The principle of complexity also implies that for the extirpation of such dishonourable actions it is necessary to widely use political, economic, ideological, moral, spiritual, medical, organizational and any other aids and facilities, without limiting to any one or several kinds of struggle.
The Principle of Individual Approach obliges to take into account the personality characteristics of each young fellow, every girl, the concern about the problem of individual’s health and happiness, safe life, suggestibility, so as to take a greater effect on them.
The Principle of All-People Involvement. It means that the struggle for the sobriety among young people may be only successful under condition if it involves ever-increasing number of learning and working young people and in the long run all people in the future.
The Principle of Consistency. Its essence lies therein that work for achievement of the sobriety in the youth environment must be carried out not just as a campaign, with drop and rise phases but every-day, continuously and systematically with increasing progress.
The Principle of Absolute Withdrawal from Alcohol implies activities for the total individual and public sobering. The resistance to alcohol is just impossible without this principle.
The Principle of Faithfulness, or truth, requires attaining the sobriety among young people based on scientific data with the aid of true and reliable scientific information on tobacco, alcohol and other drugs.
The Principle of Personal Responsibility of managers, first of all, for alcohol consumption and for the state of struggle for the sobriety in the youth environment.
The Principle of Humanity. It is known that the concepts of humanism, humanity and humanization have become the traditional notions not only in modern science but also in current practice. Not only scientists or political leaders, not only parties or movements but also bearers of everyday awareness have already accustomed to use the said contents as self-evident (for example, humanitarian assistance). Nevertheless, there should be stated the lack of the clear conceptual apprehension of the principle of humanity itself. We associate with the principle of humanity the establishing of the following three ideas in research and practical activity: а) the recognition of a man as the highest social value, i. e. not only natural and technical objects and processes but also public ones should be in the long run considered through the prism of the human being "emancipation": traditional values, wealth and power must be subordinate to the value of a human being; b) the acknowledgement of a man as the aim of the public development, i.e. all the rest in society (power, money, science, arts and moreover, the temperance activity) should be adjusted to educational, socio-cultural and individual’s spiritual needs and it should be an aid in respect to a human being considered as the goal; c) the recognition of the establishment of the sobriety as the highest criterion for the assessment of all social life spheres, as the measure of economy, science, pedagogics, arts, medicine and management, which, first and foremost, will require the establishment of radically new relations between the science of temperance and the widely-understood sober activity.
The Principle of Sociality. The terms and concepts of "sociality", "the social", "social medium", «sociability» are widely used in modern science. They are generally opposed either to natural or technical-economic objects and processes. For the establishment of the sobriety among young people the concept of sociality is of the vital importance in the following three aspects а) the social determinateness of a human nature itself, a human substrate. In other words, a man is not a biochemical or biophysical or generally a natural entity; b) the social determination of the most multi-aspect process of the achievement of a sober personality. In the conventional comprehension this is the recognition of the significant role of social environment in the formation of a man; c) the sociality of the functioning individual existence. It means that not only the highest human functions (scientific activity, artistic creativity etc) but also all the processes (motion, smile, gestures, facial expression etc.) are social and contain socio-cultural programs therein.
The Principle of Optimality obliges specialists to draw up the best program for the formation of orientation to the sober mode of life among young people, to favour the implementation of such programs in educational institutions where young people study.
The Principle of Development. The dynamic nature of the establishment of the sobriety in the youth environment presupposes that science and practice should be based on the principle of development, i. e. to recognise a person as a dynamic formation, to analyze these stages of the socialization, the individual-historic forms of a personal being etc. The principle of the development for us means, as applied to the analysis of the social being formation, the following: а) an individual (a person, an individuality, a personality) is the product of the development, the result of anthropogenesis and sociogenesis processes; b) we consider the sobering process as a stage-time movement distinguishing therein the levels of identification, individualization and personalization; c) the external influence of the social medium to a sobering person will never give a positive humanistic result, if the person itself has no internal impulses to sobering.
The Principle of Polarization. This principle is the methodological transformation of the dialectic law of the unity and struggle of opposites. The following aspects are of importance for sobering of the youth: а) the study of a human being as a system of the following polar properties: biological-social, needs-abilities, subject-object, mental-physical, individual-collective etc.; b) the principle of polarization implies the dialectic examination of the sobering process itself, the unity of opposite forms, methods, the development- self-development, education-self-education, identification-individualization aspects therein; c) the social functioning of a person, who becomes or became sober, requires a dialectic approach thereto.
The Principle of Personal Example provides for the giving up by teachers, parents, managers in various entities, where young people work, the tobacco, alcohol and other drug consumption. If adult instructors may not give up pernicious habits, they should frankly and just to tell the youth how they accustomed to such treacherous habits, why could they not give up intoxicants.
The Principle of Practicability. One of the peculiarities of the establishing sobriety in the youth midst is its pragmatic orientation, when a person itself and the procedure of its sobriety, and the person functioning obtain their significance from the point of view of those spheres of social life, which form a social medium, namely: а) first of all, the sober human research proceeds from the historically established system of the social practice; b) the sobering-up process for a person presupposes the surmounting of a pro-alcohol informational-enlightening style and the use of all various sobering mechanisms of the practical activity itself for the formation of a sober person; c) the specific nature of the achievement of the sobriety in the youth midst lies in the fact that it does not stop the personality development at any certain stage. We are interested in the further advance of a personality, the effectiveness of formed abstinent traits of an individual, the problem of contradictions of the state alcoholization and the formation of a sober person.
The Principle of Strategic Integrity means the precise definition of a common long-term strategy for the youth temperance with principal strategic lines and specific tactical solutions arising therefrom, including single target arrangements and actions.
The Principle of Pedagogic Effect intends the use of such pedagogical techniques as narrations about negative consequences of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and other drug taking for a man, a human organism and health, for the family and society welfare. This principle envisages the application of such methods as the attendance of temperance lectures, talks, watching TV broadcasts; the support of young people’s aspiration to lead a healthy sober life; the involvement in the youth temperance movement, the study and the practical every-day use of health-improving and health-constructive methods strengthening and maintaining the individual sobriety and health.
The Principle of Multi-Aspect Approach orients at the obligatory combining of different aspects for the preventive activity in a family: a person-centered, behaviour-centered and an environment-centered aspect. The person-centered aspect implies actions aimed at the positive development of sober resources of a young individual. The behaviour-centered aspect is the purposeful formation of strong sober habits and strategies for stress-overcoming behaviour in a young person. The environment-centered aspect is the formation of an effective system for the social support of the youth, including that in the framework of the so-called Uniform territorial prevention and rehabilitation space.
The Principle of Situation Adequacy of establishing the sobriety among young people means its best consistency with the real social-economic and sober situation (at the territorial local level). To ensure it, the continuous monitoring of this situation and the control for effects of the target activity are required.
The Principle of Continuality presupposes the provision of continuity, integrity, dynamism, the permanent development and improvement of the temperance activity in the youth midst.
The Principle of Solidarity means the joint interdepartmental cooperation and the interaction between governmental, public, confessional, private structures in a problem sphere with the use of the system of government social orders.
The Principle of Legitimacy implies the implementation of the target activity only based on the acceptance of its ideology of temperance and confident support by the majority of the population.
The Principle of Patriotism is oriented at the respect to domestic sober potential and its enhancing, the reliance on one’s own sobering experience, in particular that of their families, their company, district, city, country.
The Principle of Statehood is aimed at the consolidation of the state role in problems of counteracting the alcohol consumption and the formation of sober mode of life in a family, in a district, in a country.
The above-stated principles of establishing the sobriety among young people enable to see its close link with a criminal (criminological) policy, educational process, to represent it as a lawful and binding part of the social policy in the formation of a new sober type of a person and the prevention of the abnormal development and also the social policy of state as a whole in the area of the formation of the temperance at the youth level.
We have described those methodological principles, which are taken as a basis for the temperance work among the youth. It does not mean that the system of these principles may not develop and be enriched, especially when applied to such developing science and practice as the establishing of the sobriety in the youth midst. The importance of the principles of activity, dimension, reflexivity, press and the significance of an axiological approach will apparently increase.
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К.Г. Башарин, профессор; З.К. Башарина, профессор (Якутск).
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